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VOA慢速超碰97资源站--烟草:那些你不知道的致死原因

时间:2018-06-28 23:18来源:互联网 提供网友:nan   字体: [ ]
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Tobacco: What You Don't Know Can Kill You

From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.

It is widely known that smoking tobacco can damage the lungs. But many people do not know that it can also cause heart disease and stroke.

That information comes from World Health Organization (WHO) officials in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO marked May 31 as World No Tobacco Day. The WHO’s 2018 campaign focuses on the damage smoking does to the cardiovascular system.

Health experts at the WHO say that cardiovascular diseases (CVD) kill about 18 million people each year. Tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure cause nearly 17% of all heart disease deaths. They add that tobacco use is the second leading cause of cardiovascular disease, after high blood pressure.

Douglas Bettcher is the director for the prevention of non-communicable diseases at the WHO. He says most people know that smoking increases the risk of lung diseases and cancer. However, studies show many of these same people do not know that tobacco use can also cause heart attacks and stroke.

"There are major gaps in the knowledge of cardiovascular disease risks of tobacco use. And in many countries, these knowledge gaps are very substantial. The percentage of adults who do not believe that smoking causes stroke are, for example, in China, as high as 73 percent. For heart attacks, for example, 61 percent of adults in China are not aware that smoking increases the risk."

Knowledge is power.

And, in this case, knowledge can save lives. The WHO project manager of tobacco control is Vinayak Prasad. He says that in some cases, the body can repair the damage caused by tobacco use.

"(If) smokers1 stop smoking, the risk from cardiovascular diseases actually is gone in 15 years. So, 15 years after quitting, the risk of CVDs is the same as if you have never smoked."

The U.N. health agency says more than 80 percent of tobacco smokers live in developing countries. It adds that the number of smokers in the developing world is increasing.

However, there is good news about smoking and tobacco use in some parts of the world. The WHO reports that tobacco use worldwide fell from 27 percent in 2000 to 20 percent in 2016. And it says the number of smokers has decreased in all areas except for the Middle East and Africa.

Reuters news agency reports that anti-smoking gains are losing ground a little in China, the world’s most populous2 country.

Reuters notes that in 2015, the Chinese government announced a series of measures that were part of the WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The measures included a tax increase on tobacco products, written health warnings on cigarettes, limits on advertising3 and banning smoking in some public places.

Thanks to the government’s actions, tobacco sales nationwide dropped for the first time since 2000. China’s state media reports that in 2016 after officials in Beijing banned smoking in public places, tobacco sales dropped eight percent.

However, a public smoking ban recently failed in another of China’s cities.

Hangzhou is a popular city for travelers. It is also home to Alibaba, the large internet business. Smokers in Hangzhou can still light up in some public spaces, such as train and bus stations as well as drinking establishments and karaoke clubs.

Reuters adds that the China National Tobacco Corporation led local opposition4 to a general, widespread ban on public smoking. The state-operated company is responsible for about seven to 11 percent of China’s taxes.

And sales are rising. Reuters also reports that in 2017, China Tobacco sold 0.8 percent more cigarettes than the year before.

Experts at the WHO claim that, what they call, the “global tobacco epidemic5” kills more than 7 million people each year. They add that close to 900,000 are non-smokers who die from breathing second-hand6 smoke.

And that’s the Health & Lifestyle report. I’m Anna Matteo.

Words in This Story

premature7 – adj. happening, arriving, existing, or performed before the proper, usual, or intended time

cardiovascular – adj. of, relating to, or involving the heart and blood vessels8

secondhand smoke – n. tobacco smoke that is exhaled9 by smokers or is given off by burning tobacco and is inhaled10 by persons nearby

exposure – n. the fact or condition of being affected11 by something or experiencing something : the condition of being exposed to something

gap – n. a missing part

quit – v. to stop doing an action or activity

lose ground – phrase. become less popular or to be given less support

convention – n. a general agreement about basic principles or procedures

karaoke – n. a form of entertainment in which a device plays the music of popular songs and people sing the words to the songs they choose : karaoke club – n. a place where karaoke is performed

epidemic – n. an outbreak of disease that spreads quickly and affects many individuals at the same time


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 smokers d3e72c6ca3bac844ba5aa381bd66edba     
吸烟者( smoker的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Many smokers who are chemically addicted to nicotine cannot cut down easily. 许多有尼古丁瘾的抽烟人不容易把烟戒掉。
  • Chain smokers don't care about the dangers of smoking. 烟鬼似乎不在乎吸烟带来的种种危害。
2 populous 4ORxV     
adj.人口稠密的,人口众多的
参考例句:
  • London is the most populous area of Britain.伦敦是英国人口最稠密的地区。
  • China is the most populous developing country in the world.中国是世界上人口最多的发展中国家。
3 advertising 1zjzi3     
n.广告业;广告活动 a.广告的;广告业务的
参考例句:
  • Can you give me any advice on getting into advertising? 你能指点我如何涉足广告业吗?
  • The advertising campaign is aimed primarily at young people. 这个广告宣传运动主要是针对年轻人的。
4 opposition eIUxU     
n.反对,敌对
参考例句:
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
5 epidemic 5iTzz     
n.流行病;盛行;adj.流行性的,流传极广的
参考例句:
  • That kind of epidemic disease has long been stamped out.那种传染病早已绝迹。
  • The authorities tried to localise the epidemic.当局试图把流行病限制在局部范围。
6 second-hand second-hand     
adj.用过的,旧的,二手的
参考例句:
  • I got this book by chance at a second-hand bookshop.我赶巧在一家旧书店里买到这本书。
  • They will put all these second-hand goods up for sale.他们将把这些旧货全部公开出售。
7 premature FPfxV     
adj.比预期时间早的;不成熟的,仓促的
参考例句:
  • It is yet premature to predict the possible outcome of the dialogue.预言这次对话可能有什么结果为时尚早。
  • The premature baby is doing well.那个早产的婴儿很健康。
8 vessels fc9307c2593b522954eadb3ee6c57480     
n.血管( vessel的名词复数 );船;容器;(具有特殊品质或接受特殊品质的)人
参考例句:
  • The river is navigable by vessels of up to 90 tons. 90 吨以下的船只可以从这条河通过。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • All modern vessels of any size are fitted with radar installations. 所有现代化船只都有雷达装置。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
9 exhaled 8e9b6351819daaa316dd7ab045d3176d     
v.呼出,发散出( exhale的过去式和过去分词 );吐出(肺中的空气、烟等),呼气
参考例句:
  • He sat back and exhaled deeply. 他仰坐着深深地呼气。
  • He stamped his feet and exhaled a long, white breath. 跺了跺脚,他吐了口长气,很长很白。 来自汉英文学 - 骆驼祥子
10 inhaled 1072d9232d676d367b2f48410158ae32     
v.吸入( inhale的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • She closed her eyes and inhaled deeply. 她合上双眼,深深吸了一口气。
  • Janet inhaled sharply when she saw him. 珍妮特看到他时猛地吸了口气。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 affected TzUzg0     
adj.不自然的,假装的
参考例句:
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
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